Centuries before a pioneering voyage on Christopher Columbus, the Vikings had arrived on the American continent, landing zero present-day Canada. A new study used ingenious dating techniques to accurately identify the time of existence performing Scandinavian settlement in the Americas: exactly a thousand years ago, in 1021 gC
A The conclusion, which ends up appearing in the article in the scientific journal Character, was made possible thanks to the analysis of wooden artifacts that came from an archeological performance on the LANse aux Meadows site, in the region of a Newfoundland electronic Labrador (Far Eastern Canadian). The study was led by Michael Dee, from the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, who worked with colleagues on perform Canadian electronic institutions in Germany. zero New World. Travel there are lands perform side on c perform Atlantic therefore mentioned in sagas (narratives that mix history electronic legend) written in Iceland in the last centuries of the Middle Ages.
Viking groups would have arrived in Canada from a Greenland, where they had managed to establish settlements that lasted for centuries (being abandoned only around one year 1400). Icelandic sagas speak of the abundance of wood in the newly discovered land. Electronic mentions conflicts with indigenous peoples, which the Scandinavians called about skraelingjar, perhaps with the meaning of people who wear skins over animals.
Excavations made at the LAnse aux Meadows over the years 1960 showed that like narratives were correct, electronic that the area probably served as the basis for expeditions to other areas of an Atlantic coast. The dates obtained at the archaeological site, however, were somewhat messy, covering practically the entire so-called Viking Period (ranging from 14 AD to 1021 nC, according to the convention is adopted today).
This was probably due to technological limitations 2 methods on dating at the time the original excavations were done, without capable controls on taking into account materials perform contaminations and other factors.
This is where the new research, coordinated by Michael Dee, enters. As in the years 1960, researchers used the perform carbon method 14, some unstable way performs the chemical element carbon that is present in living beings.
When a tree is cut down so that its wood can be transformed into a chair, for example, a carbon-14 that it has incorporated throughout its life will slowly disappear of a wood. As this happens following some known rate, it is possible to tell when the tree was alive from the amount of carbon-14 in the wood.
For luck 2 researchers, it was possible to identify artifacts on wood produced with instruments on steel, which the indigenous perform Canada zero had at the time. That is, t could have been created by the Vikings. The next step was to take into account some anomaly in the amount on carbon-14 produced by cosmic rays, a type on radiation emitted by the Sun electronic other stars towards the Earth.
It so happens that a shower that is especially heavy on cosmic rays, when it hits on carbon atoms, produces an excess on carbon-14. Electronic other studies m had shown that some of these storms had happened in the year 993 chemical.C. Sony ericsson were it possible to identify this anomaly in the pieces of wood precisely, the exact information perform Viking settlement would be easier to catch.
It was what the researchers did with the help of 2 rings on the growth of a wood. It happens that trees, in several places in the world perform, form wooden rings in their trunk as they grow, electronic each one corresponds to a year.
Knowing that a 2 internal rings corresponded to the year of a storm 2 cosmic rays, electronic that an outer ring of a wood corresponded to the end of the growth of a tree, just counting the other rings, from inside to outside, to reach the conclusion that the artifacts had been made zero year over 1021.
The dating needs to help researchers better understand the zero context in which a Scandinavian settlement was created electronically, perhaps because it ended up being abandoned.