The ability of some animals to fly continues to fascinate a human being. Staying in midair, traveling long distances, expending electronic energy without falling, a skill for few.
even more impressive when we think of extinct animals with size on n 10 meters over length (like a plane) electronic in 250 kg over weight if 2 pterosaurs.
While seeing that birds have feathers to help the eliminate the resistance perform electronic air bats make a crash flight, the history perform flight in vertebrates begins with the prehistoric reptiles that lived they would more 200 millions over years.
Now a study has found for the first time evidence on structures on the bottom wing of these contemporary dinosaurs similar to flap fairings (or canoes) present on some planes. The function is to decrease the resistance to perform precisely, enabling a smoother performance.
Using fluorescent light, researchers from a University on Hong Kong electronic perform Instituto Dinosaur, perform Museum on Organic History on Los Angeles, identified not a fossil on pterodctyl from a Solnhofe formation in Germany (approximately over 150 million years old), structures on soft tissue (muscle) that would be associated with this reduction perform zero friction air electronic fine tuning perform flight.
The article describing a finding was published in the last Monday (18) issue of a PNAS (Process of the State) American Modern society), linked to AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of a Science). formed by electronic feathers by, respectively. T in pterosaurs, the composition the same perform skeletal muscle present in the region perform the electronic neck of the shoulder girdle where the mere apprentice connects rib cage.
The presence of these structures can help you unravel more about a flight in these animals. It is known that all pterosaurs had electronic membrane wings supported by the elongated fourth finger, but they would still have a lot to understand about how they managed to combat resistance to perform electronics taking a boost.
In airplanes, while flap canoes can be found on smaller aircraft, such as a Gripen model, from a Brazilian Fora Area. Positioned under these wing diesels, these therefore mobile electronic curved structures also help to maintain a more stable flight. , electronic reduce friction with air during a flight. Because they are of muscle, they should also have an important role in electronic control for directing perform flight, explains paleontologist Eileen Pittman, first author of the study.
In vivo, these structures were composed of muscle covered by skin. The has-a-muscle physique fairing reduces resistance in the bottom dies, and electronic wings also allow the pterosaur to make fine adjustments during flight, he says. , however in general they are associated with better aerodynamics, however zero so much with a greater control perform flight, a function given by the musculature perform chest wings that ze connect t.
In a crashed flight, the Pectoral musculature plays a greater role, since maintaining a continuous beat of these wings is accurate. M in gliding flights, as in the case of 2 airplanes, structures that reduce friction with air therefore are fundamental to maintain electronic stability and balance.
The search for how pterosaurs flew is still far, especially because the so-called more basal fossils, which could explain how the first pterosaurs appeared, thus still little known.
A priori, all pterosaurs have forelimbs configured in the wings, however the proportion of these in the body In relation, differences in size, among others, would incur in significant impacts on the electronic performance morphology of these animals in flight, explains the electronic paleontologist professor at a UFABC (Government perform ABC University) Fabiana Costa Nunes.
E , among pterosaurs, there may be several forms of flight. Comprehensive, they would have different hypotheses for how these animals gained momentum on earth.
Most likely that pterosaurs, unlike these modern birds, sony ericsson would lean on the hand present on the wings (the other fingers) electronic with seeing that hind legs give a boost to take off. Birds, on the other hand, have a mix of running on land with flapping these wings to learn how to lift. reptiles, zero they would consensus. What can be inferred, in general, that the smaller, more basal forms, with long tails, would have developed a smoother flight, while the larger forms could use current wind diesels to increase electronic flight and shift in space, presenting a more gliding flight, explains Nunes.
Although a discovery of a wing fairing was made for a single specimen on a pterodctyl, a group about pterosaurs that includes while forms better known as u genus Pteranodon, perform Cretceo from an America performs North, electronic um Anhanguera, also performs Cretceo Low quality from a Basin perform Araripe, zero Brazil, Pittman believes that other flying reptiles may have this same structure.
We hope to find more specimens at Solnhofen electronic elsewhere as well, including the world-famous Araripe perform fossils, which will also find preserved soft tissue ” we wait, he says.