String Theory: How to Understand the Universe with Pythagoras' Music Mathematics

Since we humans have existed, we have been looking at the stars. As we admire them, we wonder how they got there and what lies beyond them.

For a long time, scientists around the world have been trying to find a simple theory that explains how the universe works. . A theory of everything.

Many theses have been tested, but so far none have fully explained what we see in our Universe. There is, however, one particularly attractive idea that some theoretical physicists believe may be correct: string theory.

” Finite string theory. It collapses in on itself. That’s why we believe in it. Other theories collapse, explode, but strings don’t,” said BBC renowned American theoretical physicist Michio Kaku.

Kaku has spent decades dealing with and trying to answer some of the most important questions ever asked.

What happened before the Big Bang? Are there other universes? What’s on the side of creation? Or on the side of one black hole another? Are so-called wormholes possible? And the higher dimensions? Do we live in a multiverse?

“These questions cannot be answered using our current understanding,” he says, referring to our best currently available theories about how the Universe works.

In fact, they sometimes even offer contradictory versions.

Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity works perfectly well for predictions about the motions of stars and galaxies, but it doesn’t it works when it is applied to the behavior of subatomic particles.

Already the quantum theory is ingenious with atoms, but it predicts that the entire Universe should collapse into a black hole which clearly doesn’t happen because we are still here.

Will we then find a unique theory that can explain everything?


“2.000 years ago, Pitgoras asked himself the same question. The great Greek mathematician thought that there should be a unifying principle, a paradigm to summarize the vast creation we see in our network. or in the Universe as we know it,” explains Michio Kaku.

“He looked around and saw a lyre. When you pull the strings on a lyre, you get a note. If you play another one, you get another note and he said: ‘Aha! The mathematics of music is rich enough to explain the diversity of everything we see around us.”

Only recently, explains Kaku, it has occurred to scientists to formulate a new theory based on the Pythagorean idea of ​​music. words, string theory.

So, how do we get from the musical reflections of Pitgoras to physics?

First, look at the work done on a precise particle accelerator, like the Large Hydron Collider at CERN European research center, where tiny particles break into pieces in high-energy collisions and are then studied in detail.

These experiments are the best way for scientists test theories about how the Universe works.

And what does string theory predict about these elements studied in the particle accelerator?

Kaku explains.

“Now we believe that all these hundreds of subatomic particles that we get by breaking protons in the Large Hydron Collider are not nothing but musical notes, as Pitgoras imagined.”

And what does string theory predict?

According to Kaku, many scientists now believe that the hundreds of particles Subatomics that we get by breaking protons in the Large Hydron Collider “are nothing but musical notes”, as Pitgoras believed.

He explains by saying that if we had a supermicroscope and with it we looked at an electron, we will see that it looks like a stationery rubber band something, circular, vibrating.

The theory is called “strings” because the vibratory motion of one of these particles is the same as that of a string on a musical instrument, such as a harp or a viola. If we put some energy on it, it vibrates.

“If it vibrates in one way, we call it an electron. If it vibrates in another way, we call it a neutrino. And if it vibrates in another way shape, we call it a quark. But it’s the same ‘elastic'”, says Kaku.

String theory offers us a tempting possibility: an explanation for the great variety of elements and phenomena we observe in the Universe and on Earth, from collisions of stars to collisions of atoms.

Of course, string theory is just that, a theory, a hypothesis. Its critics claim that many of its predictions cannot be scientifically demonstrated, that Michio Kaku himself recognizes something.

His supporters, however, consider it the best hope to unify physics. Kaku even believes that it could explain the mystery of dark matter.

“Dark matter constitutes most of the matter in the Universe. It is invisible and holds the galaxies together. But how can we prove it?” , he asks, before offering the answer offered by string theory.

“We believe that dark matter may be the next octave of the string”, he says.

“If we could magnify all the particles we see around us, we would see a lot of circular rubber bands vibrating at different frequencies. But the rubber band has higher octaves. That’s what we believe dark matter to be.”

If Michio Kaku is right, the sheer complexity of the entire Universe could be reduced to simple and elegant string vibrations.

“I think something we should understand,” he says, “is physics at its fundamental level it gets simpler and simpler, but also more powerful, the deeper we go.”

“The Universe is simpler than we thought.”

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