some pain called phantom

By Renata Fontanetto

Why do some people feel members that do not exist there?


Ps, what operating system do I want to learn I have wings to fly. The phrase follows a drawing by Frida Kahlo made days before her right leg was amputated. In times of Paralimpadas, the impressive efficiency of athletes who lost a limb draws more attention to this type of deficiency. For many people, the experience of amputation can lead to situations that science is still trying to understand.

Around about 80% 2 cases in which A limb or organ removed, whether on a planned basis or in emergency surgery, the person still feels like sony ericsson he exists. This I learned calls sensation perform phantom member: the presence of that perform body part that ze was. Today, it is known that this happens due to physiological changes resulting from an amputation.

The incidence of this sensation is greater when the traumatic experience, explains Brbara Pires, electronic physical education professional, PhD in Science by the DOr Institute on Electronic Teaching Research, Idor. Furthermore, the literature is richer in reports that sony ericsson refer to limbs, such as arms and legs, about which operating system patients mention itching, tingling, electronic pressure, even voluntary or involuntary movement. Some other manifestation of pain, which is usually chronic electronic, can last for years.

Some scientific hypotheses seek to understand operating system mechanisms associated with electronic why it occurs: while hypotheses called peripherals, like centrals electronic seeing that contextual. Peripherals try to disentangle the perform phenomenon from the point of view of the body’s periphery. In the amputation stump, some patients develop neuromas, small nodules in the nerve that can trigger pain.

Zero However, according to Pires, today this sensation is better explained by changes that occur at zero performance main nervous system. Even when the stump regenerates perfectly electronically they would not zilch in the body periphery to justify it, it is possible that the person feels it, she observes. Therefore, I learned the peripheral hypotheses not contemplating everything, perform brain derive the so-called central hypotheses. After all, a perform body was removed as a piece, but the brain area that represents it, no. For the researcher, it is important not to discard the third group: these contextual hypotheses. Psychological conditions come into play, such as electronic anxiety and depression, which are not therefore described as the cause of the pain, but which can affect, for example, the intensity.

If the response is zero brain, zero local analgesics perform stump or in other ways zero show good results. The pains usually return, electronic a patient returns to be medicated with increasingly larger doses. No they would a sure treatment, however some therapies alleviate operating system symptoms, such as the famous perform mirror therapy, created by Indian neuroscientist Vilayanur Ramachandran. In it, the patient positions the mirror in such a way in the middle of the body that the mirrored part faces the healthy limb. When performing the movement, the person deceives the brain, as if the leg or the reflected arm were the amputated limb.

Zero doctorate, completed in 2020 Sony ericsson asked to learn how to modulate brain activity in regions related to electronic pain sensation in ghosts. In conjunction with the perform Idor expert group, she performed a test with excellent limb amputees using some neuroimaging technique: functional magnetic resonance neurofeedback. Secondarily, it analyzed z and the modulation of brain activity affected pain.

If it is possible that the sensation occurs because there is some alteration in brain representations performing a removed limb, then it is worth observing a brain live. The researcher asked the participants to perform study period precisely to move the phantom limb inside the perform resonance device. Meanwhile, some team was checking brain activity. The work was supervised by Fernanda Tovar-Moll electronic scientists Erika Rodrigues, in addition to having been carried out with the National Institute of Traumatology electronic Orthopedics, Into, a reference in the Single Health System.

By performing a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms behind these phenomena, we can validate or reinforce electronic hypotheses and perhaps develop more effective treatments in the future, says Pires. The thesis article is in the submission stage, undergoing evaluation, electronic in the brief perspectives will help you build a scientific knowledge about these new ghosts.


*)Renata Fontanetto electronic journalist is a master in scientific dissemination by Fiocruz.

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