on the shoulders of the runts

By Luiz Augusto Campos

Inequality within science


If I could see beyond it was because it was on the shoulders of the giants. From the motto of the homepage perform Google College student as a greatest vendor of Stephen Hawking, this adage ze became the symbol electronic synthesis of how the scientific advance sony ericsson would make. The story of the sentence is much more complex, however. Although formulated centuries earlier, its most famous version I learned originates from a letter sent by Isaac Newton in response to one of his greatest foes, Robert Hooke, who complained about the lack of recognition of his philosophical contributions to the laws of gravity.

At the time, Newton zero only claimed the authorship of these laws as well as disagreed with Hooke on the importance of performing speculative knowledge for the science. From his perspective, scientific discoveries would be made to a large extent against operating system giants, electronic not from their. What few know is that the mention of gigantism 2 thinkers perform in the past period is probably some ironic reference to Newton’s short stature by Hooke. Logo design, more performs than synthesizing the advance performs scientific knowledge, the metaphor would be some sarcastic nudge in the doubtful theories of its interlocutor. More importantly, he was insinuating that Hooke was far from one of those electronic tits that his contribution to theories of minimum period gravity. Some Michael’s interpretation of its most famous use. Although we are seduced by the heroism of precursors such as Copranicus, Galileo, Einstein or Pasteur, the logic of scientific discovery today is very different from that of yesteryear. Names like Charles Darwin electronic Jones Edison, for example, worked alone, with artisanal experiments in quasi-home labs. Zilch farther performs collective work, electronically articulated in a network of contemporary science. In it, the role of personal ideas 1970 is important, but much smaller than that played by the accumulation of knowledge carried out by numerous scientists.

Zero they would demerit in shifting the emphasis on giants to operating system runts, on the contrary. Recognizing the role of many compared to the few is fighting against some tendency intrinsic to science about distributing electronic funding academic gifts to select individuals, making the collective work invisible behind these great discoveries. This logic reinforces what sociologist Robert Merton called the Matthew effect: in science, as in the biblical parable 2 talents, to those who have, more to be given, electronic have in large quantities, however to those who do not have, even what they have. it will be taken away.

Zero there is no consensus on u that promotes a reinforcement of these internal inequalities science, but operating system multiple filters proper to an academic career electronic the highly hierarchical logic 2 laboratories seem to be central elements. The role of these leaders in the management of complex projects remains basic, however they themselves ignore the difficulties in sharing achievements. In interviews with Nobel laureates in the decade 1970, Harriet Zuckerman l highlighted the discomfort of these scientists with the excessive specific recognition they received. Many regretted that the attention generated by the award overshadowed the collective work of numerous teams. When the Matilda effect was coined, Margaret Rossiter highlighted how this affected women in specific invisibility, however the same seems to apply to scientists from various other political minorities.

Apart from operating systems rare. moments about a paradigm revolution, the science zero sony ericsson makes about operating system shoulders over giants, but like contributions over dwarves. Even mainly because of the most innovative discoveries they usually learn to be worth performing together with numerous scientists who publish hundreds of articles, working in laboratories with teams of assistants in quasi-industrial structures, connected by global networks on cooperation. Sony ericsson simply because academic hierarchies play a role in management, electronic production, and reproduction of a science, they cannot result in some endless accumulation of asymmetry electronic inequalities. The challenge is, therefore, to produce some reward structure that rewards great leaders without, however, ignoring the essential role of performing collective work, those electronic scientists coming from disadvantaged groups electronically discriminated above.

Luiz Augusto Campos teacher on sociology perform Institute on Social Studies electronic Politics of a UERJ, editor-in-chief of an academic journal DADOS electronic researcher of a zero diversity academic world.

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