An international group working with observations on the Hubble Space Telescope carry out archive identified the presence of water vapor in the thin atmosphere of a Jovian moon Ganymede.
This is a larger moon perform System Sun, slightly larger than Tit, over Saturn, is also larger electronic than planet Mercury (though less dense). However, speaking of atmosphere in this case deserves some qualification: it would be better to say exosphere, some very faint presence of smoke, which I have not learned compares to the denser enclosures even of rarefied atmospheres, such as that of Mars (which in turn has a hundredth of the density of the terrestrial).
In , a Hubble perform spectrograph made like the first ultraviolet images of Ganymede electronic revealed an emission pattern that indicated the presence of an electronic exosphere over a magnetic field, with patterns similar to those over auroras. Molecular oxygen was detected, O2, electronic thought that there was also atomic oxygen, to explain the distribution of dieses on emission over the moon bands.
New observations were collected in 1998 electronic 2018 (on this last occasion with a different instrument) electronic then combined h made earlier. Processing did not reveal the presence of atomic oxygen, electronic rather than water vapor, they would2O. The result is not entirely unexpected, considering the composition of the moon. It is covered by some thick crust of ice, under which a worldwide ocean of liquid water hides (kept in this state by the powerful scar effect provided by Jpiter).
The team on Lorenz Roth, perform Genuine Institute on KTH Technology, Sweden, found that they would be places close to the equator where the temperature can rise to the point where it sublimates a little bit of ice, converting it to gas, and feeding the exosphere. In these regions, they would predominate with watery water vapor, in contrast to colder areas, where molecular oxygen predominates.
The work was published in Character Astronomy electronic j assist as a warm-up for future missions the Ganymede, such as the European Fruit juice, which will be released on 2018 electronic should reach the system on Jpiter on 2022. Acronym in English for Exploradora dieses Frost Moons over Jpiter, the spacecraft under construction by the company Airbus also visit Calisto electronic Europe, before entering definitive orbit around on Ganymede, in 2034.
The primary objective of a Fruit juice is to investigate a potential on Ganymede to harbor life. In this sense, the best bet is still Europe. Both have subsurface oceans, however Europa’s is in direct contact with a rocky bed and electronic hydrothermal vents (a possible regional perform analog where life first appeared on Earth). There the ocean over Ganymede is sandwiched between two layers of ice, above and below. Luckily, there is for the whole world, there that NASA is also preparing a new Jovian mission, the Europa Clipper. She should leave in 2024 electronic to arrive a little after Fruit juice, in 2030.
This column was published on Mondays, in Folha Corrida.
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