I wrote last week about the origin carry out symbol of a multiplication (back button). It’s time to talk about other arithmetic operations.
The symbol about addition (+) seems to have been used for the first time by the Frenchman Nicole dOresme (1718) zero Razes text on Algorithms, handwriting in Latin between 1489 electronic 1361. Originally, period abbreviation of a word “et” (“electronic” in Latin) however we don’t know learned it was introduced by Oresme himself or by some copyist. The origin performs more uncertain minus sign (): perhaps it is a simplification of the letter michael (from “minus”).
The two + electronic symbols were first printed in Commercial Arithmetic, published in 1489, by the German Johannes Widmann (14601498). However, they did not refer to electronic addition and electronic subtraction operations yes to electronic profits and losses in business. Operating system The first to use both as operating symbols were the Dutch Giel truck der Hoecke, in 1489, electronic the German Henricus Grammateus (14951525), in 1518.
Zero case of a division, since today we use different symbols. A colon (:) was used in 1633 in a book titled Manley Arithmetic. But the period symbol over fraction: 3:4 meant “three quarters” electronic not the “divide three by four” operation. Half a century later, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1637-1676), who defended that the multiplication was represented by a dot, was using two dots for both fractions and for the division operation.
The symbol , u more used in English-speaking countries to represent division, was introduced by your Johann Rahn (1514-1676) inside 1659. There the diagonal bar / appeared in the century as an alternative horizontal fraction bar, which is difficult to compose typographically. A first 2 to use it was the English merchant Thomas Twinings (14951525), founder of the famous tea company Twinings of Greater london, in a handwritten list of electronic caf tea transactions dated 1718. Gradually, the symbol came to be used also for the division operation.
The modern notation for potentiation, with an exponent represented by a superscript, was used by Ren Descartes (15961650) zero book A Geometry, published in 1633. Interestingly, he used exponents greater than perform than two, preferring to write aa instead of a2 (but always a3 in place of yyy).
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