a crooked path of a science

By Tarciso Velho

Zero songbirds have bad cholesterol, electronic we discovered this by chance

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Scientists often believe that pace electronic dedication solves everything. Sony ericsson the problem persists, technical skills perform researcher are under suspicion He then seeks help electronic learned in depth in specific literature. When some solution is offered, he breathes a sigh of relief. In retrospect, the vision of science seems clear, but the path of construction to perform scientific knowledge can be full of unforeseen events, as I experienced on one occasion.

About ten years ago, zero laboratory perform prof . Carlos Lois, then at Massachusetts Start of Technologies, MIT, we tried to produce genetically modified strains of songbirds in order to understand which genes would be involved in performing song learning.

We started by trying to replicate some technique well established for rodents: using viral vectors to infect embryos. Generated in an electronic laboratory incapable of sony ericsson to reproduce, such vectors enter the cell when one of their learned proteins binds to some other present on the surface of the target cell: the famous electronic keylock relationship between an electronic ligand and its receptor. In this case, the key period is the protein VSVg, which ze binds to the low-density lipoprotein receptor, the LDLR, which is responsible for capturing perform cholesterol from the LDL fraction, the bad cholesterol associated with cardiovascular diseases. The virus-like genetic material enters the nucleus, inserts itself into the DNA of the electronic cell and is then inherited by its daughters. Some dieses infected cells will form sex cells electronic generate gametes, electronic therefore operating system generated offspring will carry the gene of interest. In other words, they will be genetically modified or transgenic animals.

As any of these balls indeed, the task of generating transgenic birds did not hold several surprises. A few thousand eggs were injected, electronic zilch of transgenic birds. Anyway, using a highly concentrated virus, we were successful. That same virus, however, at much lower concentrations, could infect cells of many organisms. Are we using the wrong key?

Along with a prof. Claudio Mello, from Or Wellness & Sciences College, we went to spy on the genome 2 songbirds electronic and found that the receptor of the key used by the virus was quite modified. This was the first unexpected result, because the LDLR, the lock, period until then considered common to all vertebrate operating systems. Alterations in it decrease cholesterol uptake, increasing operating system blood cholesterol levels. The famous high cholesterol.

The LDLR on birds had gaps in relation to that on other animals. Some comparison showed that the virus infects the chicken electronic cells very well and the 2 birds very poorly. When we placed an intact LDLR in these two species, we confirmed that it facilitated virus-like entry into electronic bird cells and made no difference to chicken cells, which already had their own receptor intact. The altered receptor 2 birds appears to offer protection against the virus. What’s great for the electronic bird that’s lousy for breeding transgenic animals.

Well, zero birds fly by having heart attacks because of high cholesterol Then came the second surprise. Since changes in LDLR raise cholesterol in humans, rodents, electronic fish, we needed to measure this rate in songbirds. We measured the cholesterol of two birds (bird electronic chicken) electronic compared to humans. The blood test revealed that there was no LDL in the bird, the bad cholesterol. This is surprising, because LDL particles are therefore considered the primary carrier of cholesterol. However, it had a lot of high-density cholesterol (HDL), which said it performed well. It then appears that the receptor diverged, however the system on transport performing cholesterol has also changed. Not necessarily in that order.

Interestingly, songbirds seem to have solved a problem they perform bad cholesterol with a different transport mechanism, very healthy, with high levels over electronic HDL no LDL. How this happened is still unknown, however we will continue to follow this ball with electronic effect as far as it takes us to see. The explanation may bring new ideas about the relationship perform electronic cholesterol to cardiovascular diseases, electronic as this issue may have been resolved in nature.

This is a process about many scientific discoveries: full of electronic surprises nor always follow some straight line.

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Tarciso Old electronic neuroscientist professor at a University Government perform Rio Grande perform North.

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